A Few Summer 2016 Fungi Part 2

Nearly mature Armillaria tabescens colony

Nearly mature Armillaria tabescens colony

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mature Armillaria inl awn (sideview)

Mature Armillaria in lawn (side view).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Both photos are of the same colony 2 days apart. At least a half-dozen Armillaria colonies were scattered about in the lawn but separated by several meters. No wood was visible on the lawn surface. In each case, however, pushing a spike into the ground at the base of the colony revealed buried wood at depths of ca. 0.3 meters. Several trees in this area were removed in the last 10 years and roots from these trees may have supported Armillaria establishment.

A view of a Russula mushroom showing the stout stipe

A view of a Russula mushroom showing the stout stipe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are several species of reddish Russulas in our area. All seem to have white spores, stout stipes and dry, brittle caps and stipes. Never colonial, they crop up year -round under oaks.

The same Russula showing the peeled edges of the cap.

The same Russula showing the peeled edges of the cap. The extent to which the skin can be pulled back from the cap is sometimes an aid in species identification.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dense colony of Coprinus mushrooms.

Dense colony of Coprinus mushrooms.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coprinus mushrooms showing gills.

Coprinus mushrooms showing gills and cap striations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mushrooms in this genus are short-lived and usually associated with dead trees. Some species release their spores through the liquefaction of the basidiocarp, leaving only a blackish liquid a few days after appearing. However the species pictured here apparently does not do this. Instead the mushrooms gradually decomposed after spores were released from the gills like most mushrooms.

A mature dark puffball with a younger, immature one

A mature dark puffball with a younger, immature one.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The puffballs (genus Lycoperdon) have a very thin peridium (skin) and release their spores through openings that form, with age, in the top of the puffball. The empty dead remains of the mushroom last much longer than the living stage. This species, in my yard, is always under oaks on bare soil and never in the lawn.

 

An immature puffball sliced open to reveal spore mass.

An immature puffball sliced open to reveal the young spore mass. Mature spores become purplish-black and dry. 

 

 

 

A pair of small saprophytic mushrooms yet identified.

A pair of small saprophytic mushrooms yet unidentified growing on an old oak branch. For now and perhaps indefinitely these are best assigned to the “Little Brown Mushroom (LBM)” category where many other small, hard-to-identify mushrooms are relegated. Even experts like  Arora (1986) find that they are often forced to retain such a specimen  in this nomenclatural grab-bag rather than attempt to assign it a genus and species.

 

 

*Arora, David 1986.  Mushrooms Demystified. A Comprehensive Guide to the Fleshy

Fungi, 2nd Ed., Ten Speed Press Berkeley Cal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Below is another pair of unidentified small saprophytic mushrooms growing on a wood substrate. Note the mid-stipe collar, a remnant of the veil which formerly enclosed the young mushroom before its maturation. Although clearly of a different species (and probably a different genus) than the first pair, spores, which were not available,  would be required for further identification

A pair of unidentified mushrooms each with a mid-stipe annulus

A pair of unidentified mushrooms each with a mid-stipe annulus

 

Arora, David 1986. Mushrooms Demystified. A Comprehensive Guide to the Fleshy Fungi

Vol. 2 . 10 Speed Press Berkeley California

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